When #MovingToHTTPS, the first step is to obtain the necessary certificates for your domains and enable HTTPS on your webserver. After your site is fully HTTPS, there are some other configuration changes you should consider to further enhance the site’s security.
Validate Basic Configuration
First, use SSLLab’s Server Test to ensure that your existing HTTPS settings (cipher suites, etc) are configured well.
Set-Cookie: SESSIONID=b12321ECLLDGH; secure; path=/
Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
Next, consider enabling HTTP Strict Transport Security. By sending a HSTS header from your HTTPS pages, you can ensure that all visitors navigate to your site via HTTPS, even if they accidentally type “http://” or follow an outdated, non-secure link.
HSTS also ensures that, if a network attacker were to try to intercept traffic to your HTTPS site using an invalid certificate, a non-savvy user can’t wreck their security by clicking through the browser’s certificate error page.
After you’ve tested out a short-lived HSTS declaration, validated that there are no problems, and ramped it up to a long-duration declaration (e.g. one year), you should consider requesting that browsers pre-load your declaration to prevent any “bootstrap” threats (whereby a user isn’t protected on their very first visit to your site).
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=631138519; includeSubDomains; preload
The includeSubdomains attribute indicates that all subdomains of the current page’s domain must also be secured with HTTPS. This is a powerful feature that helps protect cookies (which have weird scoping rules) but it is also probably the most common source of problems because site owners may “forget” about a legacy non-secure subdomain when they first enable this attribute.
Strict-Transport-Security is supported by most browsers.
Certificate Authority Authorization (CAA)
Certificate Authority Authorization (supported by LetsEncrypt) allows a domain owner to specify which Certificate Authorities should be allowed to issue certificates for the domain. All CAA-compliant certificate authorities should refuse to issue a certificate unless they are the CA of record for the target site. This helps reduce the threat of a bad guy tricking a Certificate Authority into issuing a phony certificate for your site.
The CAA rule is stored as a DNS resource record of type 257. You can view a domain’s CAA rule using a DNS lookup service. For instance, this record for Google.com means that only Symantec’s Certificate Authority may issue certificates for that host:
Configuration of CAA rules is pretty straightforward if you have control of your DNS records.
Public Key Pinning (HPKP)
Unfortunately, many CAs have made mistakes over the years (e.g. DigiNotar, India CCA, CNNIC CA, ANSSI CA) and the fact that browsers trust so many different certificate authorities presents a large attack surface.
To further reduce the attack surface from sloppy or compromised certificate authorities, you can enable Public Key Pinning. Like HSTS, HPKP rules are sent as HTTPS response headers and cached on the client. Each domain’s HPKP rule contains a list of Public Key hashes that must be found within the certificate chain presented by the server. If the server presents a certificate and none of the specified hashes are found in that certificate’s chain, the certificate is rejected and (typically) a failure report is sent to the owner for investigation.
Public Key Pinning powerful feature, and sites must adopt it carefully—if a site carelessly sends a long-life HPKP header, it could deny users access to the site for the duration of the HPKP rule.
Free services like ReportUri.io can be used to collect HPKP violation reports.
HPKP is supported by some browsers.
Certificate Transparency is a scheme where each CA must publicly record each certificate it has issued to a public, auditable log. This log can be monitored by site and brand owners for any unexpected certificates, helping expose fraud and phony domains that might have otherwise gone unnoticed.
Site owners who want a lightweight way to look for all CT-logged certificates for their domains can use the Certificate Transparency Lookup Tool. Expect that other tools will become available to allow site owners to subscribe to notifications about certificates of interest.
Since 2015, Chrome has required that all EV certificates issued be logged in CT logs. Future browsers will almost certainly offer a way for a site to indicate to visiting browsers that it should Expect or Require that the received certificate be found in CT logs, reporting or blocking the connection if it is not.
Thanks for your help in securing the web!