Email Tracking Links are the Worst

Note: The non-secure email link vulnerability described in this post was fixed before I posted it publicly. The Clinton campaign’s InfoSec team was polite, communicative, and fun to work with.

All emailed links to should now use HTTPS.

Since building the MoarTLS Browser Extension to track the use of non-secure hyperlinks, I’ve found that a huge number of otherwise-secure sites and services email links to users that are non-secure. Yes, I’ve ranted about this before; today’s case is a bit more interesting.

Here’s a recent example of an email with non-secure links:

Non-secure links in email

As you can see, all of the donation links are HTTP URLs to the hostname, including the link whose text claims that it points to httpS:// If you click on that link, you usually end up on a secure page, eventually:

Secure server

So, what’s going on here?

Why would a site with a HTTPS certificate send users through a redirect without one?

The answer, alas, is mundane click tracking, and it impacts almost anyone using an “Email Service Provider” (ESP) like MailChimp.

For instance, here’s the original “Download our Browser” email I got from Brave:

Brave Download link uses HTTP

Brave inserted a HTTPS link to their download in their original email template, but MailChimp rewrote it to non-securely point at their click-tracking server “”. The click tracker allows the emailer to collect metrics about the effectiveness of the email campaign (“How many users clicked, and on which link?”). There’s no inherent reason why the tracker must be non-secure, but this appears to be common practice for most ESPs, including the one used by the Clinton campaign.

Indeed, if you change Clinton’s injected tracking URL to HTTPS, you will see a certificate error in your browser:

Bad Certificate name mismatch

… revealing the source of the problem— the links subdomain of the main site is pointed at a third-party ESP, and that ESP hasn’t bothered to acquire a proper certificate for it.

DNS reveals the "links" domain is pointed at a third party

The entire links subdomain is pointed at a 3rd-party server. A friend mused: “Clinton could’ve avoided this whole debacle if she were running her own email servers.”

So What, Who Cares?

When I complain about things like this on Twitter, I usually get at least a few responses like this:

Who cares tweet

The primary problem is that the responder assumes that the HTTP link will reliably redirect to the HTTPS page… and this is true in most cases, except when there’s an attacker present.

The whole point of HTTPS is to defend against network-based adversaries. If there’s an active man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacker on the network, he can easily perform a sslstripping attack, taking over the non-secure connection from user, fooling the user into submitting their private information. The attacker could simply keep the connection on HTTP so he can monitor and manipulate it, or he could redirect the victim to a fake domain he controls, even one with a valid HTTPS certificate (e.g.

Okay, so that’s bad.

Unfortunately, it gets worse in the Clinton case. Normally a bad guy taking advantage of SSL Stripping  still needs to fool the user into giving up something of value– not a high bar, but nevertheless. In the case of Clinton’s donation’s link, there’s a bigger problem, alluded to in the text of the email itself:

Donations go through "immediately"

That’s right—if you click the link, the server collects your money, no questions asked. Security researchers immediately recognize the threat of a cross-site request forgery… any web page or MITM could direct a victim’s browser to the target link and cause money to be withdrawn from their bank account. To protect against that, a properly developed site includes a secret canary in the URL so that the attacker cannot generate a valid link. And if you look at the markup of the email you see that the campaign has done just that (behind the black boxes to protect my account):

CSRF Canary

Unfortunately, there’s a fatal flaw here: the link is HTTP, which means that the canary is sent in raw form over the network, and the canary doesn’t expire after it’s been used. Anyone who views the unprotected HTTP traffic can collect my secret token and then feed the link back to my browser, forcing me to donate over and over and over again without any kind of prompt.

Aside: Beyond the security problem, there’s a significant functionality problem here. In the HTTP protocol, GET requests link those sent in navigations are meant to be idempotent, a fancy way of saying that sending the same request more than one time shouldn’t have any side effects. The Clinton campaign’s donation page, however, will bill the user every single time the donation link is loaded no matter why the page was loaded. Even a user who is not under attack can suffer multiple-billing if they don’t immediately close the tab after donating. If the user navigates that tab to another site, then clicks the browser’s back button, they’re charged again. Clicking back and forward a few times to figure out what’s happening? Billed over and over and over.

Things are even worse on a memory-constrained device… browsers like Chrome will “page out” tabs to save memory as you switch applications. When you switch back to the browser, it swaps the page back in, reloading it. And you’re billed again:

Push notification from AMEX reveals I've been charged again

… billing continues each time the browser is activated until you have the good sense to close the tab. (You can force Desktop Chrome to manually discard a tab early by visiting chrome://discards/; you’ll note you’re billed again the next time you click the tab).


Whether you’re a Presidential Campaign or a streaming music site, please use HTTPS everywhere—there’s no good excuse not to protect your users. And if you’re taking users’ money, you need to be very very sure that your requests contain a nonce to require confirmation before double-billing.

Thanks for your help in securing the web!

-Eric Lawrence

Email Tracking Links are the Worst

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