For over twenty years, browsers broadly supported two features that were often convenient but sometimes accidentally invoked, leading to data loss.

The first feature was that hitting backspace would send the user back one page in their navigation history. This was convenient for those of us who keep our hands on the keyboard, but could lead to data loss– for instance, when filling out a web form, if focus accidentally left a text box, hitting backspace could result in navigating away from the form. (Some browsers tried to restore the contents of the form if the user understood what happened and hit “forward”, but this feature was imperfect and might not work for all forms). One of the browser UI leads complained about this behavior annually for a decade, and users periodically howled as they lost work. Finally, circa 2017, this feature was removed from Chrome and Microsoft Edge followed soon thereafter. If you happened to love the old behavior and accept the risk of data loss, you can restore it via extension.

The second feature was drop to navigate. Dragging and dropping a file into the browser’s content area (the body of the page) would, (unless the page’s JavaScript was designed to handle the drop, e.g. to upload it or process it locally), navigate to that local file in the current tab. Some folks like that behavior– e.g. web developers loading HTML files from their local filesystem, but it risks the same data loss problem. If a web page doesn’t accept file uploads via drag/drop, the contents of that page will be blown away by navigation. Back in 2015, a bug was filed against Chromium suggesting that the default behavior was too dangerous, and many examples were provided where the default behavior could be problematic. Yesterday, I landed a tiny change for Chromium 85 [later merged to v84] such that dropping a file or URL into the content area of a tab will instead open the file in a new tab:

Dropping in the content area now opens it in a new tab:

If you do want to replace the content of the tab with the dropped file, you can simply drag/drop the file to the tab strip.

A small white arrow shows you which tab’s content will be replaced:

Dropping the file between tabs on the tab strip will insert a new tab at the selected location:

Chrome (85.0.4163/v84) and Microsoft Edge (85.0.541) include this change; it was also later merged to v84. Microsoft Edge Legacy didn’t support drop to navigate. Firefox still has the old behavior; the closest bug I could find is this one. Safari 13.1.1 still has the old behavior and replaces the content of the current tab with the local file. Safari Tech Preview 13.2 Release 108 instead navigates the tab to an error page (NSPOSIXErrorDomain:1 Operation not permitted”).


Starting in Edge 77 (and Chrome 77), the prompt shown when launching an AppProtocol from the browser was changed to remove the “Always allow” checkbox. That change was made, in large part, because this prompt is the only thing standing between every arbitrary site on the Internet (loaded inside your browser’s sandbox) and a full-trust application on your computer (running outside of the browser’s sandbox). See the prior blog post for details on why AppProtocols are so scary.

After Edge 77, when you try to launch a Microsoft Teams meeting, for instance, you’ll see a UI like this:

Unfortunately, there’s a downside to this security improvement.

The same prompt that protects users from malicious content on https://BadGuy.example also shows every single time the legitimate Microsoft Teams website tries to open its related application. Users complain that the security prompt feels redundant, and IT departments have howled that they’ll have to retrain users and field helpdesk calls.

Starting in Edge 82.0.425.0 Canary, a new flag is available:

Visit edge://flags/#edge-exclude-schemes-per-origin, set the flag to Enabled, and restart the browser. After doing so, you’ll see that the prompt now includes a new checkbox: “Always allow <hostname> to open links of this type in the associated app”:

By storing exemptions on a per-site, per-scheme basis, attack surface is significantly reduced, because only sites you’ve specifically allowed in the past are permitted to bypass the prompt.

This change will also be available in browsers based on Chromium 84.

Some notes on this change:

  • Exemptions are stored on a per-scheme, per-origin basis (e.g. “Allow teams: from https://teams.microsoft.com“, so if multiple origins use the same scheme, you’ll need to exempt each one.
  • Stored exemptions are origin specific: “https://site.example&#8221; and “https://www.site.example” and “http://site.example” are all different origins.
  • Stored exemptions are only available for secure origins (basically, HTTPS, HTTP-to-Localhost, and FILE).
  • This checkbox is visible by default in Edge 84, but can be disabled using the existing Group Policy.
  • At present, there is no Group Policy for an admin to push exemption pairs to the client. We are investigating this request.
  • To clear stored exemptions, you may continue to use the “Cookies and other site data” checkbox in the Clear Browsing Data dialog box. Note that you can set the time range to anything you like– all Origin+Scheme exemptions will be cleared.

You can experiment with this feature using the AppProtocol test page.


A user recently noticed that when loading Paypal.com in Microsoft Edge, the UI shown was the default HTTPS UI (a gray lock):


Instead of the fancier “green” UI shown for servers that present Extended Validation (EV) certificates:EV-for-Paypal

The user observed this on some Windows 10 machines but not others.

The variable that differed between those machines was the state of the Menu > Settings > Advanced > Windows Defender SmartScreen setting.

Edge only shows the green EV user interface when SmartScreen is enabled.

IE 11

Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 behaves the same way as prior versions of IE going back to IE7– the green EV UI requires either SmartScreen be enabled or that the option Tools > Internet Options > Advanced > Security > Check for Server Certificate Revocation be enabled.


The Chrome team recently introduced a new setting, exposed via the chrome://flags/#simplify-https-indicator page, that controls how EV certificates are displayed in their Security Chip. A user (or a field trial) can configure sites with EV certificates to display using the default HTTPS UI.




With a check-in on Monday night, Chrome Canary build 60.0.3088 regained a quick path to view certificates from the top-level security UI. When the new feature is enabled, you can just click the lock icon to the left of the address box, then click the “Valid” link in the new Certificate section of the Page Information bubble to see the certificate:

Chrome 60 Page Info dropdown showing certificate section

In some cases, you might only be interested in learning which Certificate Authority issued the site’s certificate. If the connection security is Valid, simply hover over the link to see the issuer information in a tooltip:

Tooltip shows Issuer CA

The new link is also available on the blocking error page in the event of an HTTPS error, although no tooltip is shown:

The link also available at the blocking Certificate Error page

Note: For now, you must manually enable the new Certificate section. Type chrome://flags/#show-cert-link in Chrome’s address box and hit enter. Click the Enable link and relaunch Chrome.


This section is enabled by default in Chrome 63 along with some other work to simplify the Page Information bubble.

If you want more information about the HTTPS connection, or to see the certificates of the resources used in the page, hit F12 to open the Developer Tools and click to the Security tab:

Chrome DevTools Security tab shows more information

You can learn more about Chrome’s certificate UIs and philosophy in this post from Chrome Security’s Chris Palmer.

-Eric Lawrence

The combined address box and search bar at the top of the Chrome window is called the omnibox. The icon and optional verbose state text adjacent to that icon are collectively known as the Security Chip:


The security chip can render in a number of states, depending on the status of the page:

image Secure – Shown for HTTPS pages that were securely delivered using a valid certificate and not compromised by mixed content or other problems.
image Secure, Extended Validation – Shown for Secure pages whose certificate indicates that Extended Validation was performed.
image Neutral – Shown for HTTP pages, as well as Chrome’s built-in pages, like chrome://extensions, as well as pages containing passive mixed content, or delivered using a policy-allowed SHA-1 certificates.
image Not Secure – Shown for HTTP pages that contain a password or credit card input field. Learn more.
image Not Secure (Red) – What Chrome will eventually show for all HTTP pages. You can configure a flag (chrome://flags/#mark-non-secure-as) to Always mark HTTP as actively dangerous today to get this experience early.
image Not Secure, Certificate Error – Shown when a site has a major problem with its certificate (e.g. it’s expired).
image Dangerous – Shown when Google Safe Browsing has identified this page as a source of malware or phishing attacks.

The flyout that appears when you click the security chip is called PageInfo or Website Settings; it shows the security status of the page and the permissions assigned to the origin website:


The text atop the pageinfo flyout explains the security state of the page:

image imageimage mixedexpired

Clicking the Learn More link on the flyout for valid HTTPS sites once opened the Chrome Developer Tools’ Security Panel, but now it goes to a Help article. To learn more about the HTTPS state of the page, instead press F12 and select the Security Panel:


The View certificate button opens the Windows certificate viewer and displays the current origin’s certificate. Reload the page with the Developer Tools open to see all of the secure origins in the Secure Origins List; selecting any origin allows you to view information about the connection and examine its certificate.


The floating grey box at the bottom of the Chrome window that appears when you over over a link is called the status bubble. It is not a security surface and, like IE’s status bar, it is easily spoofed.


Navigation to sites with severe security problems is blocked by an interstitial page.


(A list of interstitial pages in Chrome can be found at chrome://interstitials/ ).

Clicking on the error code (e.g. ERR_CERT_AUTHORITY_INVALID in the screenshot below) will show more information about the certificate of the blocked site:


Clicking the Advanced link shows more information, and in some cases will show an override link that allows you to disregard the security protection and proceed to the site anyway.


If a site uses HTTP Strict Transport Security, the Proceed link is hidden and the user has no visible option to proceed.


In current versions of Chrome, the user can type a fixed string (sometimes referred to as a Konami code) to bypass HSTS, but this option is deliberately undocumented and slated for removal from Chrome.

If a HTTPS problem is sufficiently bad, the network stack will not connect to the site and will show a network error page instead.



PS: There exists a developer reference to Chrome Security UI across platforms, but it’s somewhat outdated.